Hick R. Journal of Social Policy 47 1 1— Greece [Country report no. Kelly E. McGuinness S. Redmond P. Savage M. An initial evaluation of the effectiveness of Intreo activation reforms [Research series no. Dublin: Economic and Social Research Institute. Kingdon J. Agendas alternatives and public policies 2nd edn. New York: Longman. New deal for Irish families. Berlin: Social Europe.
Case-study on Intreo: The one-stop-shop for job seekers in Ireland. Case studies on innovation and reform in the public sector. Dublin: Department of Public Expenditure and Reform. Laffan B. Roche P. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The failure of child protection and the need for a fresh start
Activation or workfare? Governance and neo-liberal convergence. MacCarthaigh M. Agency termination in Ireland: Culls and bonfires or life after death? Public Administration 92 4 — Public sector reform in Ireland: Countering crisis. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Reforming the Irish public service: A multiple streams perspective. Administration 65 2 — The goal is to ensure that families and children served across the province are being treated equitably, she added. Ballantyne vowed to make the province-wide race data public as soon as it is collected and analyzed. Black community leaders have complained for years that their children are taken into care in disproportionate numbers.
He insists, however, that the statistics be used to trigger programs and reforms that will reduce the number of black kids in care.
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Gordon applauded the Star for first publishing the data on the number of black Toronto kids in care. Ontario Minister of Children and Youth Services Tracy MacCharles, has expressed concern about the number of black kids in care but has stopped short of ordering societies to collect race-based statistics. Data collection is currently a messy patchwork. The ministry is setting up a central database to standardize the collection of child protection data, but full implementation is years away, and race-based data is so far not part of the program.
Changes include standardized training and accreditation of child protection workers and amalgamation of services and agencies. They take children into care who are abused or neglected by parents, and provide services to help keep families together. State data indicates African American children are 1. This webpage provides links to a variety of resources on this topic, including state and local efforts to address disproportionality.
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Using survey data collected from families in Women, Infants, and Children WIC clinics in Franklin County, Ohio, United States, this study examines racial disparities in child maltreatment through a focus on the relationship between social services availability and child maltreatment across black and white families.
In the study county, black families were more likely to live within a closer distance of poverty, mental health, and substance abuse services compared to white families. White and black families reported similar levels of neglect, but black families reported higher levels of physically abusive behaviors. Proximity to poverty services was associated with lower rates of Loving Lessons: White Supremacy, Loving v.
Virginia, and Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System. Part I of this Article introduces a brief discussion of the history of antimiscegenation laws and, specifically, their prevalence in the Commonwealth of Virginia during the s. Part IV argues that the remnants of the white supremacist ideology at the center of Loving appear in our modern child welfare system, which has long been plagued by Child Welfare and Race. This issue paper explains African Americans comprise Findings from studies are shared that indicate the overrepresentation of African American and Latino children in the child welfare system, and the biases of physicians evaluating toddlers with accidental injuries and caseworkers who were more lily to substantiated allegations of neglect against African American and Latino families.
It shares findings from a pioneering program in New York State that found when decision makers in the county are not told The role that area deprivation, family poverty, and austerity policies play in the demand for and supply of children's services has been a contested issue in England in recent years. These relationships have begun to be explored through the concept of inequalities in child welfare, in parallel to the established fields of inequalities in education and health. Despite the large body of work demonstrating the detrimental effects of school suspension, there are notable gaps in the research regarding predictors of this form of discipline in early elementary school, and particularly in how these predictors may vary by gender.
This longitudinal study was designed to address these gaps by exploring kindergarten and first grade predictors of one and three years later school suspension. The final sample consisted of kindergarten and 1st grade elementary school students who were referred to a truancy program from public schools. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to control for cluster effects of individual Families of color in the State of Michigan, as in many other states, have been overrepresented in the child welfare system, particularly in the foster care system.
Guided by Bronfenbrenner's human ecology theory and Shaw and McKay's social disorganization theory, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences and perceptions of African American parents and families about the barriers Global Child Health. This text on global child health begins by describing the various domains of global health, including international health, tropical medicine, travel medicine, public health and disease prevention, and care for immigrant children or refugee children. Chapter 3 focuses on global health disparities in high-resource settings and provides information on drivers of inequality in healthcare and racial and ethnic disparities in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States.
Pathologies that disproportionately University of Melbourne. Centre for Evidence and Implementation. Save the Children Australia. This annual report uses publicly available and government-held data to evaluate progress towards ending the over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in out-of-home care OOHC in Australia. It describes progress on a set of key indicators — including their quality and availability — that can be used to measure progress and to influence the uptake of specific policy, practice, and funding decisions that are most likely to reduce over-representation.
The report is structured into three distinct sections: the first examines drivers of over-representation within child protection systems and current data that describes over-representation. The second addresses prevention and early This report highlights the rise of children in foster care in Kansas and the describes the strains on stakeholders throughout the foster care system.
Key challenges in the current foster care system are discussed, including the increase in foster children and the racial disproportionality of those entering foster care in Kansas, the increasing average length of stay in foster care and the rising likelihood of children begin placed in group residential homes, and the difficulties Kanas children in foster care have in finding permanency.
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New Mexico Kids Count. New Mexico Voices for Children. This report begins by explaining child poverty in New Mexico is among the worst in the nation and disparities exist within all indicators of child well-being for children of color. It then provides statistics that address the economic well-being of children, child health, education, and family and community indicators for New Mexico.
Findings indicate: Black children are less likely to live in poverty than Hispanic and Native American children; median incomes for Black households lag behind White and Asian households; Black children have the second highest rate of health insurance coverage; Black and multi-racial babies are more likely to be born Where children grow up has a major impact on what they become as adults. Towards achieving what is optimal for one's children, parents across cultures carry out different parenting practices.
Despite this, Black parents in Canada feel their parenting practices are unfairly targeted by Child Welfare Agencies CWA , resulting in the overrepresentation of Black children in the welfare system. This study presents qualitative findings on Black parents' knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of navigating through complex Child protection rules and processes in Toronto, Canada.
Results revealed that Black parenting experiences are shaped and influenced by cultural knowledge and perceived anti-Black racism in This chapter examines the methodological issues in measuring disproportionality in foster care and out-of-home placement. It reviews research findings on racial and ethnic disparities along different stages of the child welfare system, and illustrates the concepts of disparities, disproportionalities, and discrimination with applications and original calculations using national data on child maltreatment cases, substantiations, and foster care placement.
Implications for practice are discussed. Author abstract modified. This report presents the findings of a study that examined patterns in disciplinary actions among public schools, challenges selected school districts reported with student behavior and how they are approaching school discipline, and actions the U. Department of Education and U. Department of Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline. This paper builds on the experiences of the first author in doing research on the overrepresentation of First Nations children in child welfare systems in Canada.
Six lessons are presented: 1 overrepresentation is an inherently quantitative construct; 2 overrepresentation is an inherently comparative construct; 3 a focus on overrepresentation draws attention to the needs of specific groups, but may obscure the need for broader systemic reform; 4 available data relies on, but incompletely represents, decision-maker perspectives; 5 available data emphasizes point-in-time decisions; and 6 ambiguity in data must be very clearly acknowledged.
Building on discussion of these lessons, we explore implications This report presents the findings of an inquiry that examined the involvement of Indigenous and racialized children and youth in the child welfare system in Ontario, Canada. The goal was to examine whether Indigenous and Black children are over-represented at CASs, particularly in admissions into care.
Findings from the inquiry indicate disproportionately high incidences of Indigenous and Black children in admissions into care at many of these agencies across the province. Indigenous children were over-represented in admissions June 1, Second Quarter Report. In addition, it presents findings from a special study that examined the numbers of minority children in out-of-home care and the well-being of children of every race. Findings indicate: Black children are 6. Presented at the National Youth-At-Risk Conference, this paper explains multivariate factors complicate Juvenile Justice JJ processes leading to the overrepresentation of racial groups, and the need for Juvenile Justice specialists to be able to recognize signs of neurodevelopmental, cognitive, socioemotional, behavioral, trauma-induced, and mental health problems at the point of first contact.
It explains early identification and intervention will support gains in social, emotional, moral, and lawful learning, growth and development. Following sections of the paper emphasize rehabilitation programming must be replaced with developmentally appropriate habilitative programming to promote initial development of critical developmental capacities, and discuss how developmentally appropriate responses Title IV-E education and training programs support the development of a specially trained, highly skilled workforce; yet, little research examining their impact on workforce diversification exists.
Findings revealed that while children of color were disproportionately overrepresented in the CPS, This paper uses administrative data from fiscal years — from the state of Texas to estimate racial disparities in foster care placement. The mean predicted probability of foster care placement is 2. Results from non-linear Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions show racial disparities in risk factors for child maltreatment do not explain the disparity in foster care placement; rather it is racial disparities in the effects of risk factors that are the A book is reviewed that explores how deeply embedded stereotypes about Black family dysfunction have contributed to an overrepresentation of Black children in child welfare.
The book discusses the history of the child welfare system and the women's movements, the characterization of Black women and how these images intersect with experiences of Black motherhood, the effects of oppression in child welfare and the experiences of Black children, and the need for a transformative agenda. Lessons include: measure early decision-making, before children enter foster care; measure broadly; understand one measure cannot stand alone and that underlying trends matter; understand how race and ethnicity are defined matters; and understand defining improvement is elusive.
Links are provided for resources for measuring racial disparity in This book examines the evolving system of American Foster family care from the s, when the Social Security Act first established the basic federal programs of the American welfare state, to the s, by which point it was clear that the vision embraced by New Deal-era reformers was not going to come to pass. The text focuses on the ideas, debates, and policies surrounding foster care, foster parents, and foster parenting, and their relationship to public welfare. Following an introduction, Chapter 1 briefly surveys the origins of foster care in earlier methods for supporting dependent children, whose beginnings date back to Child protection is a highly consequential social institution that simultaneously supports and regulates marginalized families.
This dissertation shows that child protection systems are largely a product of the institutional environments in which they are enmeshed. Rates of child welfare intervention are closely tied to the character of a state's social policy regime. Places with aggressive police forces and punitive criminal justice systems are likely to produce higher volumes of reported child abuse and neglect, and are likely to place more children into foster care. Places that exhibit high levels of racial inequality in their criminal justice systems are also likely to This book explores the history and politics of the U.
Chapter 2 traces the history of devaluing African American parents and summarizes data The importance of addressing the way that educators contribute to the child welfare pipeline and the need for professional development are discussed. This chapter discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in the child protection system, reviews theories on overrepresentation, and summarizes the four main causes of entry for ethnic minorities into the child protection system: culture, migration-related stressors, generalist issues, and institutional biases.
A table delineates the cultural causes of entry and non-cultural causes of entry. This article addresses the potential causes of the extensive racial disproportionality that has plagued the American foster care system. The analysis in Part 2 begins with a comprehensive dissection of the Adoption and Safe Families Act and its potential correlation to racial disproportionality.
Part 3 provides several policy recommendations directed towards Moreover, the study attempted to explore the influence on these judgements of the use of structured instruments and professional experience. Two case vignettes of child maltreatment were presented to CPS caseworkers and students of social work and psychology. Family ethnic origin and income were manipulated in the vignettes. The findings showed no statistical evidence of biases related It is well-known that, in the United States, African-American children are disproportionately represented in the child welfare system and that disparities in the provision of services exist.
The debate over contributing factors to this overrepresentation and these disparities is ongoing as researchers seek explanations and practitioners pursue solutions. This qualitative inquiry finds that within the context of the child protection system and the juvenile court process, racial dynamics emerge between respondent parents and system representatives that may affect the process and, in turn, the outcomes for the thousands of children of color in the foster care system.
King, Bryn. Despite the substantial body of literature on racial disparities in child welfare involvement in the United States, there is relatively little research on such differences for Canadian children and families. This study begins to address this gap by examining decision-making among workers investigating Black and White families investigated for child protection concerns in Ontario, Canada.
Using provincially representative data, the study assessed whether Black children were more likely than White children to be investigated by child welfare, if there was disparate decision-making by race throughout the investigation, and how the characteristics of Black and White children contribute to the decision to Universal mental health screening is a potential strategy to increase problem detection and reduce disparities in care provision. However, no study has experimentally tested the effect of universal screening on patterns of service utilization across racial groups and the potential to reduce disparities.
Succeeding Together? This text explores the educational outcomes of Canadian children in the child welfare system that remain with their parents. It analyzes front-line accounts from mothers, teachers, and child welfare workers to investigate the educational issues facing abused and neglected children outside of foster care. Findings indicate significant shortfalls in coordination and cooperation regarding these It focuses specifically on the aspect of the relationship between schools and school welfare agencies where there are the clearest formal requirements for coordination: the responsibility of educators to observe, report, and take action on situations that raise significant concerns about abuse or neglect.
This chapter explains that post World War II, it became conventional wisdom among child welfare workers that the foster care population was far more damaged that in the past. The impact of this belief on perceptions of foster children, their biological parents, and their foster parents is discussed, including the shift of foster care to therapeutic functions, the designation of hard to place children, the increased funding for certain categories of children, the movement of children with disabilities from hospitals to private homes, and the lack of foster care services for African American children.
This chapter explains the growing governmental role in foster care in the s and s, the increase in federal funding of foster care, and the codification of unsatisfactory answers to the complex problems that had always been at the heart of foster care. A study used National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Child Files and census data to estimate the lifetime prevalence of official investigations for child maltreatment among children in the United States.
Findings estimate that Woodmass, Kyler.
Children (includes Child Abuse) - Social Work - Guides-Home at Cuyamaca College
Despite some reductions in recent years, African American children in the United States continue to be disproportionately placed into out-of-home care. This paper describes a secondary analysis of data collected by Minnesota's African American Disparities Committee to identify whether factors in the casework process were contributing to Minnesota's extreme rates of disproportionality.
The study, first described in a Minnesota Department of Human Services report, identified over non-Hispanic, non-immigrant, white and African American child neglect cases substantiated in in four counties. Cases were then followed until case closure or for at least 18 months following the time of report This study explored social workers perceptions of disproportionality of African American children in the child welfare system, with a particular focus how they felt child welfare agencies, and organization address the specific needs of African American children and families.
Along with the types of services social workers felt could be implemented in order to address the concerns amongst African American families. Major findings in the research under represent the perspective of the social workers who work closely with these children and their families.
The overall research method that was utilized in this study was qualitative by design. The data collection consisted Harris, Celia. This report reviews the process that unfolds when a young person is tried as an adult in California and evaluates the health and equity impacts of charging youth as adults. The report discusses how the juvenile justice system has lost its way, the role of environment in Disparities in mental health service use exist for children of color in the child welfare system. Studies exploring a theoretical link of provider racial bias to disparities in service use recommend further inquiry into this association.
Since measuring caseworker racial bias may be difficult, examining language, particularly as to whether caseworkers attribute racial disparities to structural mechanisms or individual agency and beliefs, may illuminate unconscious racial bias that caseworkers have towards their clients. Therefore, this study employed discourse analysis to examine child welfare caseworker racial explanations of mental health disparities.
Qualitative data derived from focus group transcripts of 36 caseworkers who This report reviews deaths, near deaths, and recurrent maltreatment of children in Washington State from January 1, through December 31, Findings indicate the vast majority of child fatalities and near fatalities related to maltreatment involved children under the age of three years; unsafe sleep practices continue to be a leading factor associated with infant deaths; fatalities of Native American and African American children It describes progress on a set of key indicators — including their quality and availability — that can be used to measure progress and to influence the uptake of specific policy, practice and funding decisions that are most likely to reduce over-representation.
The report is structured into three distinct sections: the first reflects drivers of over-representation within child protection systems and current data that describes over-representation. The second addresses the social and Keefe, Robert H. Impoverished and African American fathers are often criticized by policy makers for lack of involvement in their children's lives. These criticisms are limited to defining responsible fatherhood as providing economic support while ignoring other forms of nurturing.
Recent studies provide a broader perspective on how impoverished and African American fathers nurture their children. This article analyzes data from five studies carried out in Syracuse, New York, between and The studies support the contention that structural violence, inherent in the disproportionate incarceration of African American fathers, is a critical factor impeding the fathers from fulfilling their paternal roles. We discuss Internationally, the welfare of Indigenous children continues to be severely compromised by their involvement with child welfare authorities.
We draw on This chapter explores barriers to cultural competency in child protection work and describes three levels that can inhibit delivering appropriate engagement with all ethnic minority families. The three levels include personal barriers, organizational barriers, and institutional barriers. Strategies for how child protection workers, agencies, and systems can be accountable for cultural competency are then discussed. Case examples and practice recommendations are included.
California Senate Committee on Human Services. California Assembly Committee on Human Services. Department of Housing and Urban Development count. It is explained that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or questioning LGBTQ youth, those who were in foster care or involved with the juvenile system, and African American youth are disproportionately represented among the This article discusses the importance of pediatric palliative care for children with cancer and findings from a study that indicates underserved children, including underrepresented minorities and those with public insurance, are more likely to experience intense end-of-life EOL care interventions, including in-hospital death.
The influence of poverty on the intensity of EOL care is considered. This study examines outcomes in the School District of Philadelphia SDP , which made dramatic changes to its code of conduct during the —13 school year. To gauge the impacts of these changes, a study examined data before and after they were implemented to investigate district-level effects of the change in discipline policy, and patterns of attendance and achievement at the school, grade, and individual levels.
Findings indicate: changes in district To facilitate the synthesis, the report provides a definition of disparities and develops a conceptual framework for identifying racial and ethnic differences throughout the service delivery system and for distinguishing racial and ethnic differences Minnesota Children and Family Services. Minnesota Department of Human Services. Child Safety and Permanency Division.
This annual report to the Minnesota Legislature provides information on the children involved in child maltreatment reports and the work that happens across the State to ensure and promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children who may have experienced maltreatment. Findings reported indicate: local child protection agencies across Minnesota received 75, reports of child maltreatment in , an Maloney, Tim.
Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services CPS. We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements.
Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between and were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems. Differences in rates of involvement with child protective services between black and white children by age Skrypek, Margaret. This community-based participatory research project was initiated following a charge from the Minnesota Legislature concerning the disproportionate representation of African American children in out-of-home care. The goal was to evaluate the impact of client race on child welfare worker decision-making and case outcomes and determine the potential for bias in decision-making.
This report describes a detailed qualitative follow-up analysis of the data gathered for the quantitative inquiry. Cases of non-Hispanic, non-immigrant, white and African American children substantiated for child neglect in were identified from four Minnesota counties and followed until case closure or for at least 18 months. Cases were Louisiana Child Death Review Report, This report presents the findings of the Louisiana Child Fatality Review program for Findings indicate 2, children died during this time period, and of those deaths were due to injury.
It notes Louisiana has the highest rate of childhood death for children ages 1 through 14 in the United States, as well as the highest rate of childhood death in children ages 1 to 4 specifically. In addition, Louisiana has the third highest rate of infant mortality in the United States, and the third highest rate of child mortality between the ages of 10 through 14 in the United This introductory chapter explores the educational outcomes of Canadian children in the child welfare system that remain with their parents.
This paper discusses reasons to be wary of the widespread use of predictive analytics in child welfare, including the risk of perpetrating cognitive and structural biases. It begins by explaining the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity framework for analyzing inequity that considers both cognitive and structural barriers.
Following sections consider concerns related to the use of predictive analytics in child welfare and other systems, examines concerns according to the inputs, outputs, and application of predictive analytics, and proposes suggestions for the future of predictive analytics in child welfare. Suggestions include: develop a code of ethics, increase accountability, Intended for social work students, academics, and practitioners whose work engages with issues of cultural competency, this book discusses best practices when working with ethnically and culturally diverse populations in child protective services.
It is based on a large-scale, three-year study that was conducted to explore culturally appropriate child protection service delivery with culturally and linguistically diverse children and families in Australia. The research included a literature review, case file reviews, and 46 interviews. Following an introductory chapter, chapters address: definitive characteristics of ethnic minorities and cultural and non-cultural characteristics they have in common; the importance of working effectively with The question of racial disproportionality in the child welfare system has, in recent years, generated a heated debate within the relatively small world of child welfare policy and scholarship.
This paper is focused on that same question from a different angle. Rather than examining the disproportionately bad outcomes experienced by Black and Native American children, this paper looks at the system itself, and in particular, one central feature of child welfare decision-making in many parts of the country: volunteer child advocates. This report explores patterns of child welfare intervention in Wales by gender, age, ethnicity, reason for intervention, and legal status, all analyzed by levels of deprivation.
Data for the study were drawn from the Children in Need census data on children on the child protection register and the SSDA dataset, which is the annual return to government in relation to children and young people looked after by local authorities. Findings from the investigation indicate: there is a clear social gradient whereby for every level of deprivation the rates of children on child protection registers and looked-after by local authorities increase, and Indigenous children and young people are over-represented at all stages of the Australian child protection system.
Policy and legislative initiatives exist in the state of Victoria, Australia aiming to support the connection between Indigenous children and young people in state care and their culture and community. This exploratory research involved focus group consultations with seven child and family welfare agencies to investigate the impacts, barriers, benefits and limitations of cultural support planning for Indigenous young people in, and leaving care in, Victoria.
Findings indicated that cultural planning was of value when it could be completed. However, various shortcomings of current systems This report was developed in response to a body of data raising concerns about barriers to healthy development and educational opportunities for African American girls in the Pittsburgh region. This annual report summarizes projects designed to strengthen courts for children, youth, and families in the Texas child-protection system and improve the safety, permanency, and well-being of children.
It highlights several notable achievements in the past year, including a new website and a twitter account that regularly reports newsworthy events and spotlights the accomplishments of the Permanent Judicial Commission for Children, Youth and Families commission members and collaborators. The report also reflects significant progress in relationships, decision-making, and collaboration on issues important to Texas.
Activities and accomplishments are described in the areas of grants, basic projects, the Protect Our Kids This annual report uses quality, publicly available, and government-held data to objectively and rigorously appraise progress toward implementing the building blocks and the ending over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in out-of-home care OOHC in Australia.
The report is structured into three distinct sections: the first reflects drivers of over-representation within child protection systems and current data Findings indicate: black infants were 2. Social Policy: An Historical Analysis. This chapter provides a timeline of steps towards the development of child welfare educational inequality in the United States from to the present.
It discusses foster care disproportionality, the effects of foster care placement, the historical development of child welfare services, and the passage of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of and its impact on family preservation and child welfare. Retrieval and discussion questions are provided. Numerous references.
Child welfare systems internationally exhibit very large inequalities in a variety of dimensions of practice, for example, in rates of child protection plans or registrations and out-of-home care. Previous research in the midlands region of England Bywaters; Bywaters et? This paper reports further evidence from the study examining the intersection of deprivation with aspects of identity: gender, disability, ethnicity and age.
Related Protecting Children in the Age of Outrage: A New Perspective on Child Protective Services Reform
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