Asians are hard-working, materialistic, and apolitical. They focus on education and discipline. The Asian values debates in the s have contributed to this line of thinking. Singapore's late Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew is the prime architect of the Asian Values hypothesis, which is also endorsed by other authoritarian leaders in Asia. Lee is often viewed as an opponent of Western democracy and human rights, and his successors see them as products of Western cultural imperialism.
Asian values and cultural relativism are used as arguments against the domestic implementation of international human rights standards by conservative elites in Asia. Lee's Singapore has been ruled by one party since independence in and has the following systems in place: mandatory death penalty for drug trafficking, arbitrary detention under the Internal Security Act, caning as judicial punishment, and strict censorship over the media and free expression.
Its ministers frequently sue its own citizens for defamation and recently detained a year-old boy for his Youtube video about Lee. One way to look at state commitment to human rights is the ratification status of international human rights laws see below. Overall, Brunei, Burma, Malaysia, and Singapore do not have good records of ratification.
1. The European Union: a community of values threatened in the East ... and in the West
When these countries do sign, rights pertaining to women, children, and the disabled are prioritized. The United States does not have a good record of ratification, either. Beth Simmons argues that for stable democracies, international human rights laws do not matter as their systems have human rights mechanisms already. It is also U. Underage soldiers, gun ownership, fundamental religions not Islamism but some Christian evangelicalism , and undocumented labor migration have been some of the issues and sources of the Americans' internal resistance to fully becoming a member of international human rights society.
Torture, arbitrary detention, and censorship took place in the name of homeland security, sovereignty, and territorial integrity. The Bush administration sanctioned the torture of prisoners, including children, in offshore detention centers such as Guantanamo Bay. The National Security Agency NSA listens in on private conversations of the leaders of their allies and collects personal information from private individuals. The UK's conservative government spies on human rights organizations.
Australia pays people smugglers to turn back boats full of refugees and vulnerable economic migrants. These are serious violations of human rights, but they are largely tolerated by ordinary citizens who buy into official narratives of the need for national security. Facing imminent threats to national security, human rights ideals in the West have withered away in both domestic politics and international affairs. There seems to be norm convergence into conservative agendas in public discourses in the East and the West.
Indeed, this division is, however, a mythical construction of conservatives who want to legitimize their political power by building an invisible wall and creating unnecessary rivalry between the two regions. The world is no longer a few blocks of civilizations as Samuel Huntington laid out in the Clash of Civilizations Free r movements and the Internet have revolutionized our way of thinking. Information, trade, education, and technology have contributed to the mutual understanding of different cultures. The 21st century is represented as the complex web of individuals and their ideas.
Access to information enables millions of people around the world to communicate and share their ideas with one another. The networks connect people at all levels: the heads of governments at the APEC meetings, defense ministers through the Shangri-La Dialogue, young Asian leaders to Western scholarships through the Asia Foundation or the British Chevening programme, the global LGBTQ caucus and Asian students to Western universities through exchange programs, to name a few.
In the physical world, the relative wealth and freedom of a country attract people from outside of its territorial boundary. It is not just material benefits but also norms that generate this osmosis effect. Democracy, human rights, equal opportunities, and life-style attract many migrant students, workers, and brides from outside the system. Open borders and free movement, however, also backfire in terms of producing conservative, xenophobic, homophobic, or extreme ideas and networks.
They create norm convergence towards more conservative agendas across the globe and build virtual borders within the community. Social media has been the major platform for like-minded nationalists to spread racial stereotypes and hatred against minorities, as well as to mobilize public mass movements. The world has multiple layers of ideas that travel beyond national borders. While global conservatives are united in calling for nationalistic sentiments, liberal internationalists are silent on free movements and individual freedom, if not marginalized within their own society.
Civil society in Asia has been relying on the normative power of international human rights and global liberal networks for their domestic campaigns against their respective authoritarian governments. Competent civil society, along with the rule of law, impartial judges, and independent media, has been the critical element for maintaining the democratic cultures in the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan. Strong civil society holds their governments accountable for key socio-economic issues.
In recent years, Burma and Cambodia have shown positive signs of growing civil societies that actively engage in human rights campaigns for political and economic reforms, the protection of ethnic minorities, the abolition of forced labor, and increased corporate social responsibilities for transnational corporations. In Singapore, NGOs organized public protests to support the year-old teenage blogger, Amos Yee, who criticized the late Lee Kuan Yew and was subsequently arrested and detained. Activists referred to freedom of expression and the government's responsibility to protect the best interests of the child.
Human rights are no longer a product of Western cultural imperialism. Human rights have been internalized among Asian liberals and members of civil society. There are Asian human rights NGOs such as Forum Asia and the Asian Human Rights Commission that campaign against the death penalty, torture, arbitrary detention, forced disappearance, criminalization of homosexuality, and draconian internal security acts. Others call for freedom of expression and migrant workers' rights. Their agendas have shifted to focus more on economic issues such as trade liberalization and free trade negotiations with Asia mainly China.
Considers how and why interventions occur and evaluates intervention as a foreign-policy response. Pekkanen Focus on political parties in Japan. Combines theoretical readings on political parties with intensive study of Japanese political parties. Kier Explores issues of civil-military relations in the United States including debates about the garrison state hypothesis; military advice on the use of force; the civil-military "gap"; and issues of race, gender, and sexual orientation in the military. Topics include the nature and variety of political Islam today, causes and implications of the current resurgence, and comparison with previous resurgences.
Examples drawn from ethnic movements in different societies. Some previous exposure either to introductory courses in political science or to courses in ethnicity in other departments is desirable. How Scandinavian countries have been governed. Costs and consequences of their governmental style and its uncertain future. Optimal size of polities, problems of mature welfare states, process of leadership and representation in multiparty systems, decline of political parties.
Structures of government in the Fifth Republic; nature of French voting behavior and evolution of the bipolarized political party system; behavior of political interest groups; training of France's administrative elite and functioning of the state bureaucracy; dynamics of policy-making. Consideration of dynamics of resistance, policies that produced Holocaust, and questions raised at trials of fascist leaders in Nuremberg and elsewhere. Includes all communist states of Eastern Europe and their successors.
Attention given to theories of integration, to relations between the European Union and member states, and to the role of the European Union in world politics. Considers these relationships from the perspectives of societal elites, media, and citizens.
Student must spend several Fridays in Olympia when the legislature is in session. Those desiring a more extensive involvement with the legislature should enroll in the political internship. THORPE Examines why political institutions fail to achieve their goals or operate in a manner they were originally intended to, and the consequences of these failures.
Topics include the national security establishment, the drug war, concentrated poverty, mass incarceration, and inner-city schools. Requires a major research project on organizing, bargaining, or another question in labor studies.
Includes material on First Amendment, libel, invasion of privacy, freedom of information, copyright, obscenity, advertising and broadcast regulation, and matters relating to press coverage of the judicial system. Topics include processes that bring issues before the court, influences on judicial decision making, the impact of the court on democratic processes, the role of the court in constitutional development, and the court's interactions with other branches. Distribution of resources among participants in the criminal justice system e. Understanding and evaluation of the interaction of criminal justice processes with the political system.
Considers legal and constitutional processes as they relate to such problems of public policy as race relations, the environment, and the economy. Emergence and development of European legal systems, legal customs at variance with those of Europe, problems of legal processes in the modern state.
Uses comparative analysis to identify both similarities and differences among media structures of nations at different levels of development. Primary emphasis on broadcast media. Questions addressed include why authoritarian regimes promote "rule-of-law", who is empowered by law, and the political consequences of "rule-of-law' promotion.
Considers social science theorizing about risks, how risks enter the policy agenda, and political and policy responses to different risks within the United States. Pekkanen Explores a fundamental link between citizens and political representation: how electoral systems shape party systems, what kinds of people become candidates, how parties work, representation, and policy. Covers effects and mechanics of the various voting systems. Applications to real decision-making situations.
Impact of policy makers on economic performance. Models of partisan and political business cycles. Concepts of economic voting. Marxist theories of modern capitalist economics. GILL Problems and prospects for collective action in a political democracy. Designing rules and institutions for effective central authority and effective constraints on governmental power. Social choice theory and game theory. Emphasis on the importance of agenda control for outcomes, and the implications of theories of social choice for common interpretations of concepts such as democracy and the general will.
Prerequisite: POL S Analyzes issues relevant to the region in comparative perspective, including democratization, religion, terrorism, civil society, economic reform, ethnic identity, and international influences. Uses theory to shed light on current policy debates. Examples of major comparative questions based on Korean case include democratization, strong state dynamics, civil society, and impact of globalization. Social, economic, and political trends that have shaped characteristics of large American cities. Distribution and use of economic and political power among parties and groups.
Future of large cities and politics of change. Open only to participants in the Political Science Honors program.
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Offered: Sp. Required for Political Science Honors. Offered: A. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 3. Offered: W. Includes internship activities, academic seminar, assemblies, and related activities. Primary emphasis on research design, data collection, data analysis, and use of computers.
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Examines current topics in research methods and statistical analysis in political science. Content varies according to recent developments in the field and with interests of instructor. POL S Qualitative Research Methods 5 Introduction to qualitative methods in political science, emphasizing practical experience with techniques. Readings and exercises cover research design, multiple methods, varieties of qualitative data, measurement and validation, participant observation, interviewing, and content analysis.
Research decision-making issues include analytical strategies, presentation of data, ethics, epistemology, and theory-building. Includes probability modeling, maximum likelihood estimation, models for binary responses, count models, sample selection, and basis time series analysis. Topics include discrete, time series, and spatial data, model interpretation, and fitting. Coherent themes arising from these works and assessment of their impact on concepts of politics. Adolph Extends the linear model to account for temporal dynamics and cross-sectional variation.
Focuses on model selection and real-world interpretation of model results. Topics include autoregressive processes, trends, seasonality, stationarity, lagged dependent variables, ARIMA models, fixed effects, random effects, cointegration and error correction models, panel heteroskedasticity, missing data in panel models, causal inference with panel data. Recommended: Graduate level coursework in linear regression and social science research design.
Basic familiarity with or willingness to learn the R statistical language. Content varies according to recent developments in the field and the research interests of the instructor. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. POL S Political Theory Research Seminar 5 Survey of paradigmatic research approaches in political theory through the exploration of a theme canonical text, theoretical concept, and specific topic.
Methods covered may include rational choice, psychoanalytic, Straussian, Marxian, and feminist approaches. Students carry out substantive theoretical research. Themes such as Marx's method, twentieth-century interpretations of Marx, and relationship of twentieth-century theorists to their eighteenth- and nineteenth-century forebears.
Readings focus on domestic and foreign policies that distinguish these countries from other advanced industrial societies. POL S International Relations Core 5 Key theories, concepts, and debates in the study of world politics and international relations. Provides an overview of the field and prepares students for the IR comprehensive exam. Focuses on the emergence and development of the modern world system, the transition from feudalism to capitalism, and the institution of the nation-state system.
Examines the political economy of trade, investment, and the international division of labor from a variety of theoretical perspectives. KIER Introduces some of the major debates concerning the use of force in international politics. Covers traditional issues in international security such as alliances and the causes of war, as well as some of the new and important questions, such as explaining war outcomes and war termination.
Effect of policy on law. Relevant roles of individuals and institutions in routine and crisis situations. POL S The Security of China 5 Bachman Examines how the Chinese state conceptualizes its national security interests and how it pursues strategies designed to achieve those interests. Topics include use of force, military modernization, civil-military relations, and defense industrialization.
Content varies according to recent developments in the field and research interests of the instructor. Addresses political dynamics of relations between United States and Europe from American republic's founding to post-Cold War era. Limited to students in Transatlantic Studies program.
Prerequisite: POL S , or permission of instructor. POL S International Relations of Modern China 5 Foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: historical antecedents; domestic and international systemic determinants; and Chinese policies toward major states, regions, and issues. Prerequisite: a course on contemporary Chinese politics or history, or permission of instructor. POL S Approaches to East European Politics Selected concepts and methodologies useful for the analysis of politics and social structure in the socialist countries of east-central and southeastern Europe.
POL S Government and Politics in the Middle East and North Africa 5 Political change in the area within the context of comparative politics; breakdown of traditional political systems; new range of choice expressed in competing ideologies; governmental and nongovernmental instrumentation of change; and problems of international relations and regional conflict and integration. Multidisciplinary approach placing contemporary problems in historical context, drawing on modern social science theories.
Connections between defense and economics are examined. POL S Institutions and Institutional Change in the Soviet Union, Russia, and the Newly Independent States 5 Critical appraisal of the principal theories and research methods dealing with the development of the Soviet state from and the formation of the newly independent states after the Soviet collapse. Studies states as large, complex organizations and their interactions with society on different levels.
Shows that interactions on any level affect the nature of the state on other levels as well. Explores role of international and domestic economic factors shaping politics and the effect of politics on economic development. Examines elite behavior and grassroots social movements. Similarities and differences in origins and development of political parties and functions they perform, both in established democracies and in developing countries.
POL S Problems of Political Development 5 Concepts of development and modernization, with particular attention to their political dimensions and their application to various historical and contemporary cases. POL S Political Communication 5 Surveys classic works and new directions in political communication, including functionalist, structuralist, constructivist, network, and comparative approaches, reflecting a range of methods. Examines political organizing, electoral and legislative processes, civic dis engagement, media and politics, public deliberation and opinion formation, political identify and discourse.
Topics include the development approach itself; critical junctures in U.
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POL S United States Party System 5 Examines the institutional and behavioral foundations of party politics in the United States, emphasizing key historical patterns of party system development and the major scholarly approaches to the study of the American parties and party politics. Course content varies according to recent developments in the field and the research interests of the instructor. POL S Industrialization and International Relations 5 Ha Examines internal-external linkage with a focus on industrialization and international relations. Comparative perspective on the question of how industrialization shapes distinctive international perspectives in terms of perception, strategies, and foreign policy behaviors.
Points and levels at which law and politics intersect. What is distinctive about legal forms; how these legal forms influence, and are influenced by, politics. Conceptions of law, courts and public policy, law and bureaucracy, civil and criminal justice, and the legal profession. POL S Law, Politics, and Social Control 5 Explores works of social scientists and lawyers regarding these competing conceptions of social control: as the seamy side of law - reinforcing equitable patterns of domination and disciplining deviants; as law embodying society's basic values, articulating minimum rules for harmonious social interaction.
POL S Supreme Court in American Politics 5 Explores the tendency in the United States to turn to the Supreme Court to provide constitutional solutions for some of our biggest social, economic, and political problems. Focuses on the controversies concerning the legitimacy and capacity of the Supreme Court to intervene in American politics and public policy. Analyzes law in terms of particular state institutions courts, agencies , professional elites lawyers, judges , and especially cultural norms "rights" discourses that are routinely mobilized by reform-movement activists. CICHOWSKI Study of the interaction between law and politics, at both the macro and micro levels of politics, and discussion of research drawing from a wide array of geographical settings.
Examination in comparative context of whether macro-structures are autonomous from underlying social structures of power and interest in the micro-level. Questions addressed include why authoritarian regimes promote "rule-of-law", who is empowered by law, and the political consequences of "rule-of-law promotion. POL S The American Racial State 5 Explores the mutually constitutive relationship between race and American political institutions, beginning with theories of race and racial constructions, race-making and nation-making, racial triangulation, and intersectionality.
Examines various institutions and public policies as manifestations of the American racial state, focusing on the epistemological challenges of identifying race, racism, and racialization. Employs cross-institutional perspective of American institutions. Examines literature concerning regulatory policy design, policy instruments, federalism, compliance, and enforcement. Studies selected federal, state, and other nations' environmental policies.
Participants are expected to have a good understanding of American policy processes. Research seminar addressing frameworks and perspectives on policy processes as they concern issue emergence, agenda dynamics, policy subsystems, policy learning, and implementation. Some approaches emphasize symbolic sphere of value and belief over material conditions of power and economic production.
Other approaches emphasize material relations. Reconciliation of symbolic and materialist approaches that explain intervention of the modern state in cultural processes. POL S The Politics of Social Movements 5 Theoretical inquiry directed to questions of collective action and political tactics by social movement groups. Case studies include labor, civil rights, women's, environmental, and other movements in twentieth-century United States. POL S Health Politics and Policy 5 Introduces central themes of health-policy research: health is not healthcare and politics has much to do with why our healthcare system works as it does.
Investigates how social science helps us understand health issues. Exploration of long-term secular change through works whose approaches derive from neoclassical economics and analytical Marxism.
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