Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications


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A filter circuit is typically required to integrate and smooth the positive or negative error signal—and promote loop stability. A frequency divider is often included in the feedback path to establish the output frequency within the range of the VCO as a multiple of the reference frequency.

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PLLs are implemented in various ways, using all-digital, all-analog, or combined circuitry, depending on the required frequency range, noise and spurious performance, and physical size. At present, the architecture of choice for high-frequency, or RF, PLLs combines all-digital blocks, such as feedback dividers and phase detectors, with high-precision analog circuits, such as charge pumps and VCOs. The main features of a mixed-signal PLL are:. The key performance-limiting characteristics of PLLs are phase noise , spurious frequencies , and lock time.

Phase noise : Equivalent to jitter in the time domain, phase noise is oscillator or PLL noise as evaluated in the frequency domain. It is the rms sum of the noise contributed by the various components in the PLL. Outside of the loop bandwidth, the VCO noise dominates.

Phase-Locked Loops and their Applications

They will appear at a frequency offset from the carrier by the PFD frequency. In a fractional-N PLL, spurs will also occur due to the action of the fractional divider. It can be specified in terms of frequency- or phase settling. Its degree of importance as a specification depends on the application. High-performance VCOs are among the last electronic components to resist the tide of silicon integration.

Only in the past few years have VCOs for cellular handsets been fully integrated into their radio chipsets. However, cellular base stations, microwave point-to-point systems, military and aerospace, and other higher-performance applications are still beyond the capability of silicon-based VCOs and are still implemented using a discrete approach.

Most commercially available discrete VCOs use a variable-capacitance varactor diode as the tunable element in an LC-based tank circuit. To keep VCO phase noise to a minimum, K V must be kept as low as possible, but achieving a reasonably wide tuning range requires a large K V. Thus, for applications that require low phase noise and a wide tuning range, VCO manufacturers typically design oscillators with low gain and a large input voltage range to satisfy these conflicting requirements.

Typical voltage tuning ranges for narrow-band VCOs are 0. Coaxial resonator oscillators CROs are another special type of VCO that uses a very low gain and wide input tuning voltage to achieve ultralow phase-noise performance. They are typically used in narrow-band private mobile radio and land mobile radio applications. Most commercial PLL synthesizer ICs have charge pump outputs that are limited to a maximum of about 5.


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An active loop filter topology using op amp circuitry must be employed to reach the higher tuning voltages. The simplest approach to achieve this would be to add a gain stage after the passive loop filter. Although simple to design, this approach has some pitfalls: an inverting op amp configuration presents a low input impedance that will load the passive loop filter, altering the loop dynamics; a noninverting configuration has input impedance high enough not to load the filter but will amplify any op amp noise by the active filter gain without the benefit of filtering by the preceding passive loop filter.

A much better topology is to integrate the gain stage and filter into a single active filter block. Prefiltering is advisable so as not to overdrive the amplifier with the very short current pulses from the charge pump—which could rate-limit the input voltage. At present, the architecture of choice for high-frequency, or RF, PLLs combines all-digital blocks, such as feedback dividers and phase detectors, with high-precision analog circuits, such as charge pumps and VCOs.

The main features of a mixed-signal PLL are:.

Phase-locked loops : design, simulation, and applications (Book, ) [esarynezivak.gq]

The key performance-limiting characteristics of PLLs are phase noise , spurious frequencies , and lock time. Phase noise : Equivalent to jitter in the time domain, phase noise is oscillator or PLL noise as evaluated in the frequency domain. It is the rms sum of the noise contributed by the various components in the PLL. Outside of the loop bandwidth, the VCO noise dominates. They will appear at a frequency offset from the carrier by the PFD frequency.

Design, Simulation, and Applications

In a fractional-N PLL, spurs will also occur due to the action of the fractional divider. It can be specified in terms of frequency- or phase settling. Its degree of importance as a specification depends on the application. High-performance VCOs are among the last electronic components to resist the tide of silicon integration. Only in the past few years have VCOs for cellular handsets been fully integrated into their radio chipsets.

However, cellular base stations, microwave point-to-point systems, military and aerospace, and other higher-performance applications are still beyond the capability of silicon-based VCOs and are still implemented using a discrete approach. Most commercially available discrete VCOs use a variable-capacitance varactor diode as the tunable element in an LC-based tank circuit. To keep VCO phase noise to a minimum, K V must be kept as low as possible, but achieving a reasonably wide tuning range requires a large K V. Thus, for applications that require low phase noise and a wide tuning range, VCO manufacturers typically design oscillators with low gain and a large input voltage range to satisfy these conflicting requirements.

Typical voltage tuning ranges for narrow-band VCOs are 0.


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Coaxial resonator oscillators CROs are another special type of VCO that uses a very low gain and wide input tuning voltage to achieve ultralow phase-noise performance. They are typically used in narrow-band private mobile radio and land mobile radio applications. Most commercial PLL synthesizer ICs have charge pump outputs that are limited to a maximum of about 5. An active loop filter topology using op amp circuitry must be employed to reach the higher tuning voltages. The simplest approach to achieve this would be to add a gain stage after the passive loop filter.

what is Phase locked loop? What is the need of it, and how it works? PLL tutorial PLL basics #16

Although simple to design, this approach has some pitfalls: an inverting op amp configuration presents a low input impedance that will load the passive loop filter, altering the loop dynamics; a noninverting configuration has input impedance high enough not to load the filter but will amplify any op amp noise by the active filter gain without the benefit of filtering by the preceding passive loop filter. A much better topology is to integrate the gain stage and filter into a single active filter block. Prefiltering is advisable so as not to overdrive the amplifier with the very short current pulses from the charge pump—which could rate-limit the input voltage.

Figure 3 shows two examples of recommended active filter topologies with prefiltering using inverting and noninverting gains. Outside of the loop, the topologies shown could drift to the supply rails. Care needs to be taken to provide a clean bias voltage, ideally from a dedicated low-noise linear regulator like the ADP , with adequate decoupling as close as possible to the op amp input pin.

Phase-locked loops : design, simulation, and applications

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    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications
    Phase-Locked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications

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