Spanish II spanish language. Italian 2 italian language. Note: for students subject to the "minor 30 credits" regime: at least one open course to be chosen, with the approval of the coordinator of the minor subject B3.
Choose 1 technical course, in line with one of the general history courses taken in major or minor from:. Medieval and modern paleography. Choose 1 practical exercise course, in line with one of the general history courses taken in major or minor AND with the technical course, among:. Part 1. Part 2. History of modern French literature. Notice : maximum 10 credits from the following courses:. Milton is central to this discussion violet-imbroider'd vale, night-warbling bird , as is Shelley insects rainbow-winged but so is the Greekless Keats whose extensive use of this type of epithet shows how deeply influenced English had become.
Hopkins also receives in depth treatment as well as others. The use of negative adjectives words in un- and -less, have long been traced to Greek influence, but words such as unravish'd Keats or passionless Milton seem so much a part of normal English that a conscious evocation of Greek seems a long way away.
Finally in this chapter H. This section puts a high demand on the reader's familiarity with the technical vocabulary of Greek and Latin prosody and any student not conversant with anapaests, dactyls and sapphics might find the discussion of the effect of the obsolete term anacrusis on the verse of Swinburne difficult to follow. With its discussion of Nietzsche's distinction in 19th century poetry, it is more a treatment of the influence of Classical authors on, in particular, Shelley, Swinburne and Hopkins.
It is a discussion of the Classical tradition of the kind we are used to, rather than the more purely linguistic angle taken in the other chapters. For Classicists an interesting feature is the discussion of passages of English verse in the analytical mode usually reserved for passages of Latin and Greek.
Ancient History and English Literature, BA (Hons)
Criticism of English verse does not usually include discussion of concessive subordinating conjunctions, but H. Familiarity with the distinctive styles of the Greek authors which dominated these English poets' reading is demanded here. This is a valuable book for students on literature courses that combine Classics with English or a modern language.
It is full of interesting examples which open up new areas of investigation, and revives some old favourite quotations, such as Thomson's once notorious "O Sophonisba, Sophonisba, O! It is also of value to Anglophone educators in the ancient languages as it will enable them to point up the influences of Latin and Greek on English -- the language used as medium of instruction of the class.
One of the great values of learning the ancient languages, to which former students nearly always testify, is the awareness of language generally that it brings and the ability to analyse language in a technical manner. Anglophones unaware of foreign languages will find this a challenging task, but H. This is an inexpensive paperback edition with corrections of the original publication of Most of the early literary works found in Meitei literature were in poetry and prose or a combination of both.
One of the most famous Meitei writers of the twentieth century is M. Binodini Devi. Marathi literature began with saint-poets like Dnyaneshwar , Tukaram , Ramdas , and Eknath. Modern Marathi literature was marked by a theme of social reform. Well-known figures from this phase include Mahatma Jyotiba Phule , Lokhitwadi , and others. Though the earliest known Marathi inscription found at the foot of the statue at Shravanabelgola in Karnataka is dated c. Mahanubhava saints used prose as their main medium, while Warkari saints preferred poetry as the medium.
The early saint-poets were Mukundaraj who wrote Vivekasindhu, Dnyaneshwar — who wrote Amrutanubhav and Bhawarthadeepika, which is popularly known as Dnyaneshwari, a couplets long commentary on the Bhagavad Gita and Namdev. They were followed by the Warkari saint-poet Eknath — Mukteswar translated the great epic Mahabharata into Marathi. Social reformers like saint-poet Tukaram transformed Marathi into an enriched literary language. Ramdas's — Dasbodh and Manache Shlok are well-known products of this tradition.
However, the most versatile and voluminous writer among the poets was Moropanta — whose Mahabharata was the first epic poem in Marathi. The historical section of the old Marathi literature was unique as it contained both prose and poetry. The prose section contained the Bakhars that were written after the foundation of the Maratha kingdom by Shivaji. The poetry section contained the Povadas and the Katavas composed by the Shahirs.
The period from to is regarded as the closing period of the Old Marathi literature and the beginning of the Modern Marathi literature. The period of the late 19th century in Maharashtra is the period of colonial modernity. Like the corresponding periods in the other Indian languages, this was the period dominated by the English educated intellectuals. It was the age of prose and reason. It was the period of reformist didacticism and a great intellectual ferment. The first English book was translated in Marathi in The first Marathi newspaper started in Lokmanya Tilak's newspaper Kesari, set up in , provided a platform for sharing literary views.
Marathi at this time was efficiently aided by Marathi Drama. Here, there also was a different genre called 'Sangit Natya' or musicals. The first play was V. Bhave's Sita Swayamvar in Later Kirioskar —85 and G. Deval l6 brought a romantic aroma and social content. The drama flourished in the s and 70s with few of the best Indian actors available to take on a variety of protagonists.
This drama movement was ably supported by Marathi films which did not enjoy a continuous success. Starting with V. Shantaram and before him the pioneer DadaSaheb Phalke, Marathi cinema went on to influence contemporary Hindi cinema. Madgulkar and actor Raja Gosavi came together to give quite a few hits in later period. Marathi language as spoken by people here was throughout influenced by drama and cinema along with contemporary literature. Modern Marathi poetry began with Mahatma Jyotiba Phule's compositions. It was largely sentimental and lyrical. Prahlad Keshav Atre, the renowned satirist and a politician wrote a parody of this sort of poetry in his collection Jhenduchi Phule.
Sane Guruji — contributed to the children's literature in Marathi. He translated and simplified many Western classics and published them in a book of stories titled Gode Goshti Sweet Stories. It has undergone a considerable change in the 20th century. The language developed mainly from the Lushai language , with significant influence from Pawi language , Paite language and Hmar language , especially at the literary level.
However, there was unwritten secular literature in the form of folktales, war chants etc. And there was rich religious literature in the form of sacerdotal chants. This article is about the written literature. Odia language literary history started with the charyapadas written in the 8th century AD. Odia has a rich literary heritage, the medieval period dating back to the 13th century.
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Sarala Das who lived in the 14th century is known as the Vyasa of Odisha. He translated the Mahabharata into Odia. In fact the language was initially standardized through a process of translation of classical Sanskrit texts like the Mahabharata , the Ramayana and the Srimad Bhagavatam. Jagannatha Das translated the Srimad Bhagavatam into Odia and his translation standardized the written form of the language. Odia has had a strong tradition of poetry, especially that of devotional poetry.
Odia language is replete in classisicm. Various forms of poetry like champu, chhanda, bhajan, janan, poi, chautisha etc. Recently [ when? There was a time when Bengali tried to overpower Odia Language. Mostly the Bengalis claimed that Odia is the derived form of Bengali and so the language cannot independently exist. But they were unaware of the fact that Odia language is older than Bengali and even one of the oldest languages in the World.dokku-dev.tortus.com/101.php
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It is one of the classical languages. Due to the immense contributions and sacrifices of pioneers like Fakirmohan Senapati , Gopabandhu Das , Madhusudan Das , Nilakantha Das , Gourishankar Ray , Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati and many more, Odisha and Odia language got back its special identity and has stood tall among the best in the country. The state Odisha and the language Odia that you see today has evolved through lots of contributions and sacrifices. The history of Punjabi literature starts with advent of Aryan in Punjab.
Punjab provided them the perfect environment in which to compose the ancient texts.
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The Rig-Veda is first example in which references are made to the rivers, flora and fauna of Punjab. The Punjabi literary tradition is generally conceived to commence with Fariduddin Ganjshakar — Farid's mostly spiritual and devotional verse were compiled after his death in the Adi Granth. The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak — , are early examples of Punjabi prose literature. Nanak himself composed Punjabi verse incorporating vocabulary from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other Indic languages as characteristic of the Gurbani tradition.
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In contrast to Persian poets who had preferred the ghazal for poetic expression, Punjabi Sufi poets tended to compose in the Kafi. Punjabi Sufi poetry also influenced other Punjabi literary traditions particularly the Punjabi Qissa, a genre of romantic tragedy which also derived inspiration from Indic, Persian and Qur'anic sources.
The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during colonial rule. The setting up of a Christian mission at Ludhiana in where a printing press was installed for using Gurmukhi fonts, and which also issued the first Punjabi grammar in , the publication of a Punjabi dictionary by Reverend J. Tamil literature has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than years Sangam period : 5th century BC-3rd century CE.
Tolkaappiyam 3rd century BC has been credited as the oldest work in Tamil available today. The history of Tamil literature follows the history of Tamil Nadu , closely following the social and political trends of various periods. The secular nature of the early Sangam poetry gave way to works of religious and didactic nature during the Middle Ages. Tirukkural is a fine example of such work on human behaviour and political morals. A wave of religious revival helped generate a great volume of literary output by Saivite and Vaishnavite authors. Jain and Buddhist authors during the medieval period and Muslim and European [ citation needed ] authors later also contributed to the growth of Tamil literature.
A revival of Tamil literature took place from the late 19th century when works of religious and philosophical nature were written in a style that made it easier for the common people to enjoy. Nationalist poets began to utilise the power of poetry in influencing the masses.
Short stories and novels began to appear. The popularity of Tamil Cinema has also provided opportunities for modern Tamil poets to emerge. The earliest written literature dates back to the 7th century. The epic literary tradition started with Nannayya who is acclaimed as Telugu's Aadikavi meaning the first poet.
He belongs to the 10th or 11th century. Vemana was a prince, also called Pedakomati or Vemaa Reddy, who lived in the 14th century and wrote poems in the language of the common man. He questioned the prevailing values and conventions and religious practices in his poems. His philosophy made him a unique poet of the masses. Viswanadha Satyanarayana Veyipadagalu — , a doyen of conventional yet creative literature, was the first to receive the Jnanpith Award for Telugu followed by C.
Narayana Reddy and Ravuri Bharadwaja. Srirangam Srinivasarao or Sri Sri born was a popular 20th century poet and lyricist. Srisri took the "Telugu literary band wagon that travelled in roads of kings and queens into that of muddy roads of common man". Telugu literature has been enriched by many literary movements, like the Veera Shaiva movement which gave birth to dwipada kavitvam couplets.
The renaissance movement heralded by Vemana stands for the old Telugu literary movements. Telugu literature has been the standard bearer of Indian literature in these respects. Kandukuri Veeresalingam is said to be the father of Modern Telugu fiction. Kodavatiganti Kutumba Rao laid the foundation for the realistic modern Telugu novel and short story, and Rachakonda and Kalipatnam carried the flag in to excellency. Among other traditions, Urdu poetry is a fine example of linguistic and cultural synthesis.
Arab and Persian vocabulary based on the Hindi language resulted in a vast and extremely beloved class of ghazal literature, usually written by Muslims in contexts ranging from romance and society to philosophy and Tassawuf Sufism. Urdu soon became the court language of the Mughals and in its higher forms was once called the " Kohinoor " of Indian languages. It is surely the most refined, enriched, sophisticated and ripended language and literature, producing poets like, Mir , Ghalib , Iqbal , Zauq and Faiz. The poetry of Mohammed Iqbal invoked a spirit of freedom among the Muslims of India, thus contributing a pivotal role in the making of Pakistan.
In Urdu literature fiction has also flourished well. Premchand is treated as father of modern Urdu fiction with his novel Godan and short stories like Kafan. The art of short story was further taken ahead by Manto, Bedi, Krishn Chander and a host of highly acclaimed writers. Urdu novel reached further heights in the s with novels of Qurratulain Haider and Abdullah Hussain.
Urdu ghazal has also recently changed its colour with more and more penetration in and synchronization with modern and contemporary issues of life. During the early Muslim period, Persian became the official language of the northern part of Indian subcontinent, used by most of the educated and the government. The language had, from its earliest days in the 11th century AD, been imported to the subcontinent by various culturally Persianised Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. Much of the older Sanskrit literature was also translated into Persian.
For a time, it remained the court language of the Mughals , soon to be replaced by Urdu. Persian still held its status, despite the spread of Urdu, well into the early years of the British rule in India. Most British officials had to learn Persian on coming to India and concluded their conversations in Persian.
In , however, the British, in an effort to expand their influence, made a government ruling to discontinue the use of Persian and commence the use of English instead. Thus started the decline of Persian as most of the subcontinent's official governmental language, a position to be taken up by the new language of the British Raj , English. Many modern Indian languages still show signs of relatively heavy Persian influence, most notably Urdu and Hindi. North-East India is an under-represented region in many ways.
The troubled political climate, the beautiful landscape and the confluence of various ethnic groups perhaps have given rise to a body of writing that is completely different from Indian English Literature. The first printing press arrived in India in the year , through the efforts of Jesuit missionaries. It was brought from Portugal and installed at the college of St.
Paul in Goa. It was used mainly for printing religious literature like tracts, hymn books etc. The first issue of this newspaper came out in and carried only classified advertisements on its front page. It was a weekly newspaper and generally dealt with the arrival and departure of Europeans, timings of steamers, fashionable news from London, Paris and Vienna, and personal news. It attended to the needs of the small European community of Calcutta.
In the year , Hicky's Bengal Gazette was forced to close down after Hicky published a scandalous story about Warren Hastings , the then Governor-General and his wife. Later on, another type of newspaper emerged- Indo-Anglian papers. They were English newspapers run by Indians primarily for English educated elite Indians. Rammohan Roy also began his famous Brahmanical Magazine, English fortnightly.
The early Indo-Anglian papers concentrated on drawing the attention of the British to the cultural and philosophical history of India. They did not openly attack social and political evils.
The first war of independence was fought from to in various parts of the country. Between and , hundreds of newspapers came up demanding freedom of expression and criticizing the repressive measures taken by the British. Journalism played an important role in making educated Indians aware of their rights.
Another significant factor was that during this period a large number of colleges imparting science and liberal arts education sprang up in the major towns of India. Digdarshan World Vision was the first Indian language newspaper, a Bengali religious weekly started in Sehrampur by Christian missionaries. The newspaper with the greatest longevity in India is the first Gujarati newspaper- Mumbai Samachar , established in Mangaloora Samachar, published from Mangalore, was the first Kannada journal.
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