Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry

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How do I wake up without an alarm clock? When did white skin first evolve? Plus, a message in a bottle Eusebius - Give us a call right now if you want to put a question to Chris for the next 30 minutes. Good morning Chris! Eusebius - I've got a song in my head, and I blame you - in a good way - for this week's story that we're going to start with. What message in a bottle in my head…. Chris - I think that's probably actually what the person who found this extraordinary thing was also humming away afterwards! This story is truly amazing. So there's a lady and a husband who are from Western Australia and they were driving around along the coast in a remote part of Western Australia and their car got bogged in the sand.

So while they were digging it out some of the people who were with them went off for a walk and sticking out of a sand dune on this remote beach was this bottle. And when they go back to the car one of the other members of the party there got the sand out of the bottle and then they realised there was this thin strip of paper inside.

They got this thin sort of cigarette-sized piece of paper from the bottle out and it was tied up with string.

So they delicately unrolled it and dried it out in the oven and read it and they thought it was a hoax because it was a message from the late eighteen hundreds from a German ship apparently! It was put into the water somewhere in the world and for something years had not been seen. Now the data which is on this piece of paper enabled them - because the writing was still legible - to then go to the German consulate - because it was from a German ship - and look up the original logs for the ship. It sailed from Cardiff and it was heading for Indonesia.

The Germans had a project for a number of years putting thousands of these messages in bottles overboard; it's sort of the more ancient equivalent really of what people are doing with those rubber ducks that accidentally went overboard a few years ago. They were using this to track where these things went.

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There were instructions on this piece of paper how to contact your German consulate to tell them you'd found this. No one had found one of these since the s. So this is the oldest - world record-breaking - Message In A Bottle ever found, and the fact is it was in the water for probably a period of time but then got washed up on this beach and probably buried in the sand was why it was saved. Because it's been in the sand for a very long time, and although the cork had slowly been eroded away by the sand, the actual note inside had remained viable and readable.

They've actually put it on display at the Western Australia Museum - bit of a trek to go and see it - but what a wonderful story all the same; Stunning; absolutely stunning! You're quite right, it's not an appetising thought when you consider all those delicious things, which tasted so nice on their own all mixing round down in your stomach and then somehow being processed.

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But that's basically what happens you swallow things: having munched them up with your teeth and broken them into a pulp, they then meet your stomach acid, which is very concentrated hydrochloric acid, and an enzyme secreted in the stomach called "pepsin" which works in this very acidic pH.

This helps to dismantle the proteins and some of the other chemicals in the food because the acid attacks the food, the pepsin attacks the food and then the stomach also has a lot of muscle in its wall so the stomach slowly moves the food around a bit like a cement mixer really to encourage mixing between these initial digestive juices and the enzymes. Then the stomach squirts out small doses of this runny stuff, which is the mixture of everything, into your small intestines. The first part of your small intestine is the duodenum; that then gives rise to the jejunum, and then to the ileum.


The small intestine has a very high surface area. The inside of the intestine is thrown into all these folds, which are then covered in more tiny folds called "villi". And this means there's a huge area for absorption. On the surface of the intestine are more enzymes that can break down individual components of the food - more proteins and sugars - and you also add to the food pancreatic juice and bile from the liver.

The pancreatic juice has got more enzymes in it that can break down all the different components of food, and the bile from the liver emulsifies fats. So instead of the fats forming large droplets, these components of bile bind to the fat, break it up into very tiny droplets and then the lipases that eat fat break them down. They can attack these particles of fat and turn them into fatty acids.

All these constituents slowly make their way to the wall of the bowl and are soaked up into the blood stream and the blood stream then sends the goodies to what's called your portal vein, which delivers them to your liver. The liver gets the first look at anything you eat, and that's important because your liver is one of your biggest organs and it's very important for detoxifying things; because you don't want some toxins and some of the things that you eat going straight into your blood supply, because it could actually upset the biochemistry of other parts of the body.

So the liver deals with any of those toxins and also extracts some of the things like a lot of the sugar that comes through. And anyone partial to a glass of shiraz with their lunch: it deals with quite a lot of the alcohol in there straight away too;. Then, anything that's left over ends up in your large intestine. And really that's there just to dry things out because everything is very very runny: litres and litres of digestive juices wash around in a small intestine.

Having been added to your body from outside and then secreted into the small intestine, you don't want that leaving your body because you'd be dehydrated very quickly. So the large bowel is there to dry things out for you.

And the other thing that we must mention is you also have more bacteria living in your intestines than there are cells in the rest of your body and they are like an extra organ in and of itself. These bacteria add their biochemistry and their metabolism on top of yours and they help you to extract more calories and more nutrients from the foods than you would otherwise be able to, including making some vitamins for you that you couldn't make with your own body.

And you then absorb those additional nutrients and you feed your bacterial passengers to keep them happy at the same time. So a happy microbiome is a happy person! That's how I found out I was pregnant.

So the question would be why would he be the one experiencing all the nausea vomiting or the stuff? He might just be taking advantage knowing that you're going to get a lot of attention downstream, so it's his turn at the moment may make it that's part of! I have seen one patient who had the same thing.

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He came in to an A and E department I was working in, about ten fifteen years ago, and he had also all the same marks on his abdomen - I think he'd just been overindulging though, but he did say he had some of these symptoms that his wife had been experiencing while she was pregnant. We don't know much about this, but there is evidence that a male's behaviour changes and his biochemistry changes his hormone profile changes when his wife is pregnant also once she has had children.

So a man who becomes a father often has quite different behaviour. There's an evolutionary advantage to this, because you want to be nurturing and protective towards your offspring to make sure they're okay. We don't know what those signals are but we do know that there are lots of chemicals which are secreted from our bodies into the air around us all the time, and some of these do have effects on other people and women can influence the behaviour of other women. There's evidence that this can happen through some kind of pheromones.

Again, this is poorly understood but it has been documented - range of studies showing this - there's no reason why it couldn't have a similar effect on the husband.

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So maybe you are oozing something out which is getting into the air and, with close personal contact, your exposing him to some signals and this is having a subtle effect on his body. And these are manifesting as some of the symptoms he's describing; but also be careful about attaching significance to coincidence, because it could well be a coincidence and he was going to feel a bit funny anyway and then you say "oh, it must be linked to the fact that I'm pregnant!

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Nazi doctor Josef Mengele's bones used in Brazil forensic medicine courses

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Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry
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Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry
Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry
Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry
Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry
Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry
Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry
Digging Up The Bones: Biochemistry

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